Author(s): Santoni G, Farfariello V, Amantini C
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Abstract Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels affect several physiological and pathological processes. In particular, TRP channels have been recently involved in the triggering of enhanced proliferation, aberrant differentiation, and resistance to apoptotic cell death leading to the uncontrolled tumor invasion. About thirty TRPs have been identified to date, and are classified in seven different families: TRPC (Canonical), TRPV (Vanilloid), TRPM (Melastatin), TRPML (Mucolipin), TRPP (Polycystin), and TRPA (Ankyrin transmembrane protein) and TRPN (NomPC-like). Among these channel families, the TRPC, TRPM, and TRPV families have been mainly correlated with malignant growth and progression. The aim of this review is to summarize data reported so far on the expression and the functional role of TRPV channels during cancer growth and progression. TRPV channels have been found to regulate cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration and invasion during tumor progression, and depending on the stage of the cancer, up- and down-regulation of TRPV mRNA and protein expression have been reported. These changes may have cancer promoting effects by increasing the expression of constitutively active TRPV channels in the plasma membrane of cancer cells by enhancing Ca(2+)-dependent proliferative response; in addition, an altered expression of TRPV channels may also offer a survival advantage, such as resistance of cancer cells to apoptotic-induced cell death. However, recently, a role of TRPV gene mutations in cancer development, and a relationship between the expression of specific TRPV gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and increased cancer risk have been reported. We are only at the beginning, a more deep studies on the physiopathology role of TRPV channels are required to understand the functional activity of these channels in cancer, to assess which TRPV proteins are associated with the development and progression of cancer and to develop further knowledge of TRPV proteins as valuable diagnostic and/or prognostic markers, as well as targets for pharmaceutical intervention and targeting in cancer.
This article was published in Adv Exp Med Biol
and referenced in Biology and Medicine