Author(s): Cahn P, Perez H, Ben G, Ochoa C
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Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Each year, there are eight million new Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) infections and three million TB-related deaths. The catastrophic effects of TB are borne disproportionately among the most vulnerable. The HIV pandemic has further increased the burden so that the risk of TB reactivation from latency is 5 to 15 percent in HIV/TB coinfection. Tuberculosis reactivation fuels further primary infections, creating a vicious cycle of increasing infection, disease, and deaths. In addition, drug-resistant TB exacerbates this increasingly common problem. The clinical presentations of TB in relation to HIV and HIV-associated immune deficiency are discussed from the perspective of clinical diagnosis and treatment in patient care. Tuberculosis prophylaxis, concurrent drug treatment of TB and HIV, drug interactions, and overlapping toxicities are detailed for the practitioner. Immune reconstitution inflammatory reactions are now a common phenomenon in HIV treatment, where similar reactions have been less commonly described in TB treatment in the past. Global distributive injustices in wealth, the burden of disease, and the provision of healthcare are obvious in TB, and clearly show us that the needs of the most vulnerable populations must be met in order to address the problems.
This article was published in J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology