Author(s): Chakraborty MS, Chakraborty A
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Abstract The HIV infection leading to AIDS is considered to be one of the greatest biomedical challenges in the present century. Like all other communicable diseases AIDS is gradually penetrating the underprivileged sections of society in all countries. Nearly 5 million people in India are living with AIDS at present that makes India a single country with highest number of HIV infected people in the world. The hallmark of HIV disease is the reduction of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, the key cells of immunity. The initial phase of the disease may be termed as HIV seroconversion illness. The next phase is termed asymptomatic HIV infection. When the CD4 count falls below 400/microliter, the patient develops early opportunistic infections which may be termed as early symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS related complex (ARC). Mycobacterial infections are also common in these patients and have led to an alarming resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries. The available information suggests that TB may be the commonest HIV related disease in the world. The clinical presentation of TB in HIV infected individual is influenced by the degree of HIV related immunosuppression. The atypical features like extrapulmonary TB and absence of positive Mantoux test are generally noticed at a fairly advanced stage. The x-ray chest is also an important adjunct to diagnosis of TB in HIV infected individual. The studies on TB and AIDS in the early part of HIV epidemic in developed countries suggest that extrapulmonary TB is more common in co-infected people but when TB infection is considered in all HIV infected persons, extrapulmonary TB is less common than pulmonary TB. The result of treatment in co-infected pulmonary TB cases is almost similar with the cases suffering from TB alone. Treatment failure, however, has been noticed rarely at extrapulmonary sites.
This article was published in J Indian Med Assoc
and referenced in Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials