Author(s): Pastorekova S, Parkkila S, Zavada J
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Abstract Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are physiologically important enzymes that catalyze a reversible conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and participate in ion transport and pH control. Two human isoenzymes, CA IX and CA XII, are overexpressed in cancer and contribute to tumor physiology. Particularly CA IX is confined to only few normal tissues but is ectopically induced in many tumor types mainly due to its strong transcriptional activation by hypoxia accomplished via HIF-1 transcription factor. Therefore, CA IX can serve as a surrogate marker of hypoxia and a prognostic indicator. CA IX appears implicated in cell adhesion and in balance of pH disturbances caused by tumor metabolism. Both tumor-related expression pattern and functional involvement in tumor progression make it a suitable target for anticancer treatment. Here we summarize a current knowledge on CA IX and CA XII, and discuss possibilities of their exploitation for cancer detection, diagnostics, and therapy.
This article was published in Adv Clin Chem
and referenced in Medicinal Chemistry