Author(s): Andreescu S, Marty JL
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Abstract Over the last decades, cholinesterase (ChE) biosensors have emerged as an ultra sensitive and rapid technique for toxicity analysis in environmental monitoring, food and quality control. These systems have the potential to complement or replace the classical analytical methods by simplifying or eliminating sample preparation protocols and making field testing easier and faster with significant decrease in costs per analysis. Over the years, engineering of more sensitive ChE enzymes, development of more reliable immobilization protocols and progress in the area of microelectronics could allow ChE biosensors to be competitive for field analysis and extend their applications to multianalyte screening, development of small, portable instrumentations for rapid toxicity testing, and detectors in chromatographic systems. In this paper, we will review the research efforts over the last 20 years in fabricating AChE biosensors and the recent trends and challenges encounter once the sensor is used outside research laboratory for in situ real sample applications. The review will discuss the generations of cholinesterase sensors with their advantages and limitations, the existing electrode configurations and fabrication techniques and their applications for toxicity monitoring. We will focus on low-cost electrochemical sensors and the approaches used for enzyme immobilization. Recent works for achieving high sensitivity and selectivity are also discussed.
This article was published in Biomol Eng
and referenced in Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics