Author(s): Cai CY, Zhang X, Sinko PJ, Burakoff SJ, Jin YJ
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Abstract HIV-1 and SIV Nef proteins downregulate cell surface CD4 and MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules of infected cells, which are necessary for efficient viral replication and pathogenicity. We previously reported that K144 in HIV-1 Nef is di-ubiquitinated, and K144R substitution impairs Nef-mediated CD4 downregulation. In this report, we extend the role of ubiquitination at this lysine residue from Nef-mediated CD4 downregulation to Nef-mediated MHC-I downregulation and from HIV Nef to SIV Nef. All HIV-1 Nef mutants that contain K144R substitution are inactive in MHC-I downregulation. Tested MHC-I alleles include HLA-ABC endogenously expressed and HLA-A2 exogenously expressed in Jurkat T cells. CD4 downregulation by SIV Nef involves K176 that aligns with K144 in HIV-1 Nef, as well as an N-terminal tyrosine motif Y28Y39 not present in HIV-1 Nef. Dual mutation at K176 and Y28Y39 completely impaired SIV Nef-mediated CD4 and MHC-I downregulation, whereas a single mutation at K176 or Y28Y39 did not. The involvement of tyrosine motif in SIV Nef-mediated CD4 and MHC-I downregulation prompted us to investigate a putative tyrosine motif (Y202Y/F203) in HIV-1 Nef that is conserved among HIV-1 species. Single mutation at the tyrosine motif Y202F203 in HIV-1 Nef (NA7) greatly impaired Nef-mediated CD4 downregulation, which is similar to what we observed previously with the single mutation at lysine K144. Thus, our study demonstrated that Nef-mediated receptor endocytosis involves the ubiquitination motif and tyrosine motif.
This article was published in J Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology