Author(s): Henry LC
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Abstract Concussions have long been understood to be an invisible injury. Indeed, conventional imaging techniques [computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] are largely ineffective in elucidating concussive injuries. More advanced techniques are being used experimentally to help delineate the underlying pathophysiology of concussive injuries on metabolic as well as ultrastructural levels. The current report reviews the data from several of these techniques including functional MRI, single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, diffusion tensor imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Each technique is briefly described, followed by a summary of the findings specific to concussive injuries. Overall, there is mounting evidence to suggest that each technique has utility in describing and explaining postinjury changes in the brain. Overall, concussive injuries are evident using the various aforementioned neuroimaging modalities and suggest at a minimum the concussed brain is different in the acute and subacute postinjury phases with several other studies suggesting that changes are persistent well beyond, especially in those patients with persistent symptoms.
This article was published in Prog Neurol Surg
and referenced in International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation