alexa Understanding dosing: children are small adults, neonates are immature children.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

Author(s): Anderson BJ, Holford NH, Anderson BJ, Holford NH

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Paediatric dose cannot be scaled down directly from an adult using weight (eg, mg/kg). This results in a dose too small in infants and children because elimination does not change in direct proportion to weight, and a dose too large in neonates whose drug elimination pathways are immature. The goal of treatment is a desired response (the target effect). An understanding of the concentration-response relationship (pharmacodynamics) can be used to predict the target concentration required to achieve this target effect. Pharmacokinetic knowledge then determines the target dose that will achieve the target concentration. Variability associated with both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can be reduced by demographic information (covariates), which can be used to help predict the target dose in a specific child. The covariates of size, maturation and organ function are the three principle contributors to pharmacokinetic variability. Children (2 years postnatal age or older) are essentially similar to adults (ie, mature) and differ only in size. Maturation processes are only important in neonates and infants, therefore, this cohort can be viewed as immature children. Paediatric pharmacodynamic studies are fewer than pharmacokinetic studies, but are required to elucidate the target concentration and consequent dose. The lack of pharmacodynamic studies is a serious challenge for rational dosing. This article was published in Arch Dis Child and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords