Author(s): Balbani AP, Weber SA, Montovani JC
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Abstract The prevalence of OSAS in children is 0.7-3\%, with peak incidence in pre-schoolers. It is characterised by partial or complete upper airway obstruction during sleep, causing intermittent hypoxia. Both anatomical (severe nasal obstruction, craniofacial anomalies, hypertrophy of the pharyngeal lymphoid tissue, laryngeal anomalies, etc.) and functional factors (neuromuscular diseases) predispose to OSAS during childhood. The main cause of OSAS in children in adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The most common clinical manifestations of OSAS are: nocturnal snoring, respiratory pauses, restless sleep and mouth breathing. Nocturnal pulse oximetry, nocturnal noise audio/videotape recording and nap polysomnography are useful tools for screening suspected cases of OSAS in children, and the gold-standard for diagnosis is overnight polysomnography in the sleep laboratory. On the contrary of SAOS adults, children usually present: less arousals associated to apnea events, more numerous apneas/hypopneas during REM sleep, and more significant oxyhemoglobin desaturation even in short apneas. The treatment of OSAS may be surgical (adenotonsillectomy, craniofacial abnormalities correction, tracheostomy) or clinical (sleep hygiene, continuous positive airway pressure--CPAP).
This article was published in Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
and referenced in Otolaryngology: Open Access