Author(s): Hessels D, Schalken JA
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Abstract Although the routine use of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has undoubtedly increased prostate cancer (PCa) detection, one of its main drawbacks is its lack of specificity. As a consequence, many men undergo unnecessary biopsies or treatments for indolent tumours. PCa-specific markers are needed for the early detection of the disease and the prediction of aggressiveness of a prostate tumour. Since PCa is a heterogeneous disease, a panel of tumour markers is fundamental for a more precise diagnosis. Several biomarkers are promising due to their specificity for the disease in tissue. However, tissue is unsuitable as a possible screening tool. Since urine can be easily obtained in a non-invasive manner, it is a promising substrate for biomarker testing. This article reviews the biomarkers for the non-invasive testing of PCa in urine.
This article was published in Asian J Androl
and referenced in Journal of Medical & Surgical Pathology