Author(s): Rosner MH
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Abstract Despite the well-known limitations, currently the most widely used biomarkers for the early detection of chronic kidney disease or acute kidney injury are proteinuria, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. All of these are less than optimal and tend to focus attention on later stages of injury when therapies may be less effective. Recently, there has been a great surge of interest in identifying novel biomarkers that can be easily detected in the urine that can diagnose renal injury at the earliest stages. A variety of methods have been employed to identify these biomarkers including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and gene arrays. Currently, several candidate biomarkers have been identified and studied in different renal injury states. These include kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin (IL)-18, and fatty-acid binding proteins (FABPs). This review will highlight the current state of knowledge of these biomarkers as well as the limitation of these biomarkers in the early diagnosis of renal injury.
This article was published in Adv Clin Chem
and referenced in Immunotherapy: Open Access