Author(s): Nicolle LE, Nicolle LE, Nicolle LE, Nicolle LE
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Abstract Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections, particularly in women. Antimicrobial therapy is seldom indicated for asymptomatic infection, but antimicrobial therapy is usually indicated for amelioration of symptoms. Management of acute uncomplicated UTI (cystitis) is generally straightforward, with a predictable distribution of uropathogens isolated. First-line treatment of acute uncomplicated UTI has traditionally involved a 3-day regimen of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or TMP alone for patients with sulfa allergies. Increasing resistance among community-acquired Escherichia coli to TMP-SMX worldwide has led to a reassessment of the most appropriate empiric therapy for these infections. Alternative first-line agents include the fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, and fosfomycin. Factors to be considered in the selection of appropriate antimicrobial therapy include pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity of the antimicrobial agent, resistance prevalence for the community, potential for adverse effects, and duration of therapy. Ideal antimicrobial agents for UTI management have primary excretion routes through the urinary tract to achieve high urinary drug levels. In addition, there are special considerations in the management of UTI among selected populations, including postmenopausal and pregnant women, and for women with frequent recurrent UTIs.
This article was published in Am J Med
and referenced in Clinical Microbiology: Open Access