alexa Vaccinia virus: shedding and horizontal transmission in a murine model.
Immunology

Immunology

Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination

Author(s): Ferreira JM, Abraho JS, Drumond BP, Oliveira FM, Alves PA,

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Abstract Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been associated with several bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil, affecting cattle and humans. There are no available data about VACV environmental circulation or the role of wildlife in the emergence of an outbreak. Since VACV was isolated from rodents in Brazil, we investigated shedding and transmission of VACV strains in mice. The VACV excretion profile was assessed by PCR and chicken chorioallantoic membrane infection, revealing viral DNA and infectious virus in the faeces and urine of intranasally infected mice. Horizontal transmission was assessed by exposure of sentinel mice to wood shavings contaminated with excrement, to mimic a natural infection. Sentinel mice showed orthopoxvirus antibodies, and VACV DNA and infectious virus were detected in their faeces and intestines, even after six rounds of natural transmission. Together, these data suggest that murine excrement could play a relevant role in VACV spread and transmission, perhaps helping to explain how these viruses circulate between their natural hosts. This article was published in J Gen Virol and referenced in Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination

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