Author(s): Taylor MJ, Govender L, Jolly M, Wee L, Fisk NM
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To validate an established staging system for twin-twin transfusion syndrome. METHODS: Prospective observational study in a tertiary referral fetal medicine center of 52 consecutive cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Each pregnancy was assessed longitudinally for a variety of prognostic factors including fetal biometry, amniotic fluid volume, arterial and venous Doppler sonogram abnormalities, and the presence of hydrops. Data were used to determine stage at diagnosis and first treatment, and worst stage throughout pregnancy. Perinatal outcome was assessed by stage. Management comprised serial amnioreduction, septostomy, selective reduction, or delivery, alone or in combination. RESULTS: Median gestation at presentation and first treatment were both 21 weeks (range 14-34 and 15-34), and at delivery it was 29 weeks (range 16-40). Sixty-three percent of pregnancies (33 of 52) were at least stage III at presentation. Forty-five percent of pregnancies (22 of 49) progressed to a more advanced stage. Overall survival was 47\% (47 of 100), with no difference between donor and recipient fetuses (40\% [20 of 50] versus 54\% [27 of 50] [chi(2) P =.5]). Survival rates were 58\% (15 of 26), 60\% (six of ten), 42\% (20 of 48), 43\% (six of 14), and 0\% (none of two) for stages I-V, respectively, with no significant influence of stage at presentation on survival. Survival was poorer where stage increased, versus decreased (27\% [12 of 44] versus 94\% [17 of 18] chi(2) P <.001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that staging at presentation identified pregnancies at greater risk of earlier rather than later gestational perinatal loss. CONCLUSION: The Quintero staging system did not distinguish good from bad outcome at presentation, and thus should be used with caution in guiding initial management of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. However, prognosis was influenced by a change in stage, and pregnancies progressing to higher stage disease were at increased risk of earlier perinatal loss. Staging may thus be more useful in monitoring disease progression.
This article was published in Obstet Gynecol
and referenced in Journal of Neonatal Biology