Author(s): Atta MM, elMasry SA, AbdelHameed M, Baiomy HA, Ramadan NE
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: p53 antigen is an oncoprotective antigen and when damaged, leads to production of anti-p53 and also predisposes to various cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Serum anti-p53 has been proven to have a prognostic value in patients with HCC. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and prognostic utility of serum anti-p53 in Egyptian patients with HCC. METHODS: Forty one patients with HCC, 26 patients with liver cirrhosis and 29 healthy controls were included in this study. For all the studied groups, we studied the clinical data, abdominal ultrasound (US) findings, biochemical liver function tests, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels detected by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit and anti-p53 antibody levels by a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The severity of liver disease was assessed by Child-Pugh and MELD scores. Tumor characteristics were detected by (US) with or without computed tomography (CT) scan. These characteristics included tumor size, number and site. Tumor staging was done using Okuda, Cancer Liver Italian Program (CLIP) and Tokyo staging systems. Also, the overall survival of patients with HCC with reference to p53 antibody level was studied. RESULTS: The mean age of HCC patients was 57.95+/-8.41. There was a male predominance among HCC patients with male-to-female ratio of 3.6:1. Anti-p53 antibodies were detected in the sera of 68.3\% of HCC patients, 50\% of liver cirrhosis patients and 17.2\% of healthy control subjects. The data showed that HCC patients had a significantly higher mean anti-p53 antibody values (p=0.0001), than both liver cirrhosis patients and healthy control groups. Our results revealed that anti-p53 has a positive significant correlation with AFP (p=0.002), severity of liver disease [Child Pugh score (p=0.02) and MELD score (p=0.0003)], tumor size (p<0.0001), tumor number (p=0.003) and tumor staging systems [Okuda (p=0.04), CLIP (p=0.006) and Tokyo (p<0.0001)]. Also, our results revealed that serum anti-p53 antibodies had a significant association with overall survival of patients with HCC (p=0.019) with a shorter survival time in anti-p53 positive status patients and with higher anti-p53 antibody levels within 19 months follow up. CONCLUSION: The detection of anti-p53 antibodies may be suitable for assessing the prognosis of HCC patients. The higher percentage of positivity of anti-p53 antibodies in Egyptian control subjects than reported elsewhere needs further thorough investigation.
This article was published in Clin Biochem
and referenced in Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis