Author(s): Boulday G, Haskova Z, Reinders ME, Pal S, Briscoe DM
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Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenesis factor, has recently been found to have potent proinflammatory properties in vivo. However, the mechanism by which it mediates inflammation is poorly understood. In this study, we have evaluated the function of VEGF on the induced expression and function of the T cell chemoattractant chemokine IFN-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10). In vitro, we find that VEGF augments the effect of IFN-gamma on the induction of IP-10 mRNA and protein expression in endothelial cells. Moreover, we show that VEGF and IFN-gamma regulate the activation of the IP-10 promoter, and that the kinases PI3K, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1, and Akt act as intermediary signaling molecules for cytokine-inducible IP-10 transcriptional activation in endothelial cells. To examine whether VEGF is functional for IP-10 expression in vivo, Chinese hamster ovary cells that were designed to secrete VEGF were injected s.c. into the skin of nude mice and were found to mediate a time-dependent increase in IP-10 mRNA. This response was reduced in animals treated systemically with the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. When the Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing VEGF plasmid were injected s.c. into C57BL/6 wild-type or CXCR3-/- mice, they elicited an inflammatory reaction in wild-type but not in CXCR3-/- mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that VEGF-induced augmentation of IP-10 expression is a major mechanism underlying its proinflammatory function.
This article was published in J Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology