alexa VEGF-C promotes immune tolerance in B16 melanomas and cross-presentation of tumor antigen by lymph node lymphatics.
Immunology

Immunology

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Author(s): Lund AW, Duraes FV, Hirosue S, Raghavan VR, Nembrini C,

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Abstract Tumor expression of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C is correlated with metastasis and poor prognosis, and although VEGF-C enhances transport to the draining lymph node (dLN) and antigen exposure to the adaptive immune system, its role in tumor immunity remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that VEGF-C promotes immune tolerance in murine melanoma. In B16 F10 melanomas expressing a foreign antigen (OVA), VEGF-C protected tumors against preexisting antitumor immunity and promoted local deletion of OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells. Naive OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells, transferred into tumor-bearing mice, were dysfunctionally activated and apoptotic. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in dLNs cross-presented OVA, and naive LECs scavenge and cross-present OVA in vitro. Cross-presenting LECs drove the proliferation and apoptosis of OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells ex vivo. Our findings introduce a tumor-promoting role for lymphatics in the tumor and dLN and suggest that lymphatic endothelium in the local microenvironment may be a target for immunomodulation. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This article was published in Cell Rep and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

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