alexa Verapamil, and its metabolite norverapamil, inhibit macrophage-induced, bacterial efflux pump-mediated tolerance to multiple anti-tubercular drugs.


Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

Author(s): Adams KN, Szumowski JD, Ramakrishnan L

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Abstract Drug tolerance likely represents an important barrier to tuberculosis treatment shortening. We previously implicated the Mycobacterium tuberculosis efflux pump Rv1258c as mediating macrophage-induced tolerance to rifampicin and intracellular growth. In this study, we infected the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1 with drug-sensitive and drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains and found that tolerance developed to most antituberculosis drugs, including the newer agents moxifloxacin, PA-824, linezolid, and bedaquiline. Multiple efflux pump inhibitors in clinical use for other indications reversed tolerance to isoniazid and rifampicin and slowed intracellular growth. Moreover, verapamil reduced tolerance to bedaquiline and moxifloxacin. Verapamil's R isomer and its metabolite norverapamil have substantially less calcium channel blocking activity yet were similarly active as verapamil at inhibiting macrophage-induced drug tolerance. Our finding that verapamil inhibits intracellular M. tuberculosis growth and tolerance suggests its potential for treatment shortening. Norverapamil, R-verapamil, and potentially other derivatives present attractive alternatives that may have improved tolerability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: [email protected]
This article was published in J Infect Dis and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

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