Author(s): Chi F, Bo T, Wu CH, Jong A, Huang SH
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Abstract BACKGROUND: IbeA-induced NF-κB signaling through its primary receptor vimentin as well as its co-receptor PSF is required for meningitic E. coli K1 penetration and leukocyte transmigration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which are the hallmarks of bacterial meningitis. However, it is unknown how vimentin and PSF cooperatively contribute to IbeA-induced cytoplasmic activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which are required for bacteria-mediated pathogenicities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IbeA-induced E. coli K1 invasion, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transmigration and IKK/NF-κB activation are blocked by Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an inhibitor of NF-κB. IKKα/β phosphorylation is blocked by ERK inhibitors. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis shows that vimentin forms a complex with IκB, NF-κB and tubulins in the resting cells. A dissociation of this complex and a simultaneous association of PSF with NF-κB could be induced by IbeA in a time-dependent manner. The head domain of vimentin is required for the complex formation. Two cytoskeletal components, vimentin filaments and microtubules, contribute to the regulation of NF-κB. SiRNA-mediated knockdown studies demonstrate that IKKα/β phosphorylation is completely abolished in HBMECs lacking vimentin and PSF. Phosphorylation of ERK and nuclear translocation of NF-κB are entirely dependent on PSF. These findings suggest that vimentin and PSF cooperatively contribute to IbeA-induced cytoplasmic activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB activation. PSF is essential for translocation of NF-κB and ERK to the nucleus. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal previously unappreciated facets of the IbeA-binding proteins. Cooperative contributions of vimentin and PSF to IbeA-induced cytoplasmic activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB may represent a new paradigm in pathogen-induced signal transduction and lead to the development of novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of bacterial meningitis.
This article was published in PLoS One
and referenced in Journal of Trauma & Treatment