Author(s): Hosoya K, Minamizono A, Katayama K, Terasaki T, Tomi M
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Abstract PURPOSE: To elucidate the mechanisms of vitamin C transport across the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) in vivo and in vitro. METHODS. [(14)C]Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and [(14)C]ascorbic acid (AA) transport in the retina across the BRB were examined using in vivo integration plot analysis in rats, and the transport mechanism was characterized using a conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB2) as an in vitro model of the inner BRB. RESULTS: The apparent influx permeability clearance (K(in)) per gram of retina of [(14)C]DHA and [(14)C]AA was found to be 2.44 x 10(3) microL/(min x g retina) and 65.4 microL/(min x g retina), respectively. In the retina and brain, the K(in) of [(14)C]DHA was approximately 38 times greater than that of [(14)C]AA, whereas there was no major difference in the heart. The K(in) of [(14)C]DHA in the retina was eight times greater than that in the brain. HPLC analysis revealed that most of the vitamin C accumulated in AA form in the retina. These results suggest that vitamin C is mainly transported in DHA form across the BRB and accumulates in AA form in the rat retina. In an in vitro uptake study in TR-iBRB2 cells, the initial uptake rate of [(14)C]DHA was 37 times greater than that of [(14)C]AA, which is in agreement with the results of the in vivo study. [(14)C]DHA uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells took place in an Na(+)-independent and concentration-dependent manner with a K(m) of 93.4 microM. This process was inhibited by substrates and inhibitors of glucose transporters. [(14)C]DHA uptake was inhibited by D-glucose in a concentration-dependent manner with a 50\% inhibition concentration of 5.56 mM. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunostaining analyses revealed that expression of GLUT1 and -3 was greater than that of the Na(+)-dependent L-ascorbic acid transporter (SVCT)-2 in TR-iBRB2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin C is mainly transported across the BRB as DHA mediated through facilitative glucose transporters and accumulates as AA in the rat retina.
This article was published in Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy