Author(s): Mitri J, Muraru MD, Pittas AG
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Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D may modify the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this review was to examine the association between vitamin D status and incident type 2 diabetes, and the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic outcomes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of English-language studies using MEDLINE through February 2011. Longitudinal cohort studies reporting associations between vitamin D status and incident type 2 diabetes, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation, were included. Study characteristics and results were extracted, and study quality was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 8 observational cohort studies and 11 RCTs were included. In meta-analyses of observational studies, vitamin D intake>500 international units (IU)/day decreased the risk of type 2 diabetes by 13\% compared with vitamin D intake<200 IU/day. Individuals with the highest vitamin D status (>25 ng/ml) had a 43\% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (95\% confidence interval 24, 57\%) compared with those in the lowest group (<14 ng/ml). In post hoc analyses from eight trials among participants with normal glucose tolerance at baseline and in three small underpowered (n=32-62) trials of patients with established type 2 diabetes, there was no effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic outcomes. In two trials among patients with baseline glucose intolerance, vitamin D supplementation improved insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D may play a role in type 2 diabetes; however, to better define the role of vitamin D in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes, high-quality observational studies and RCTs that measure blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and clinically relevant glycemic outcomes are needed.
This article was published in Eur J Clin Nutr
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism