alexa Vulnerability of central neurons to secondary insults after in vitro mechanical stretch.
Neurology

Neurology

Journal of Spine

Author(s): Arundine M, Aarts M, Lau A, Tymianski M

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Mild traumatic brain injuries are of major public health significance. Neurons in such injuries often survive the primary mechanical deformation only to succumb to subsequent insults. To study mechanisms of vulnerability of injured neurons to secondary insults, we used an in vitro model of sublethal mechanical stretch. Stretch enhanced the vulnerability of the neurons to excitotoxic insults, causing nuclear irregularities, DNA fragmentation, and death suggestive of apoptosis. However, the DNA degradation was not attributable to classical (caspase mediated) or caspase-independent apoptosis. Rather, it was associated with profound stretch-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sublethally stretched neurons produced surprisingly high levels of ROS, but these in isolation were insufficient to kill the cells. To be lethal, the ROS also needed to combine with nitric oxide (NO) to form the highly reactive species peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite was not produced after stretch alone and arose only after combining stretch with an insult capable of stimulating NO production, such as NMDA or an NO donor. This explained the exquisite sensitivity of sublethally stretched neurons to a secondary NMDA insult. ROS scavengers and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors prevented cell death and DNA degradation. Moreover, inhibiting neuronal NOS activation by NMDA using peptides that perturb NMDA receptor-postsynaptic density-95 interactions also reduced protein nitration and cell death, indicating that the reactive nitrogen species produced were neuronal in origin. Our data explain the mechanism of enhanced vulnerability of sublethally injured neurons to secondary excitotoxic insults and highlight the importance of secondary mechanisms to the ultimate outcome of neurons in mild neurotrauma. This article was published in J Neurosci and referenced in Journal of Spine

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords