alexa Wastewater discharges may be most hazardous to fish during winter.
Agri and Aquaculture

Agri and Aquaculture

Journal of Marine Science: Research & Development

Author(s): Lemly AD

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Abstract Winter Stress Syndrome (WSS) is a condition of severe lipid depletion in fish brought on by external stressors in combination with normal reductions in feeding and activity during cold weather. Fish can develop this syndrome in response to chemical stressors such as water pollutants, or biological stressors such as parasites. Substantial mortality can result, potentially changing year-class strength and population structure of the affected species, and altering community-level ecological interactions. Aquatic contaminants should be evaluated in the context of seasonal metabolic changes that normally occur in test organisms. WSS could be an important, but as yet unquantified, cause of mortality in many circumstances. Wastewater discharges may pose a greater toxic threat to fish during winter than at other times of the year. A comprehensive protocol for aquatic hazard assessment should include testing for WSS.
This article was published in Environ Pollut and referenced in Journal of Marine Science: Research & Development

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