alexa What do human micronuclei contain?
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis

Author(s): Norppa H, Falck GC

Abstract Share this page

Abstract As micronuclei (MN) derive from chromosomal fragments and whole chromosomes lagging behind in anaphase, the MN assay can be used to show both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. The distinction between these phenomena is important, since the exposure studied often induces only one type of MN. This particularly concerns the use of MN as a biomarker of genotoxic exposure and effects, where differences in MN frequencies between exposed subjects and referents are expected to be small. A specific analysis of the induced type of MN may considerably improve the sensitivity of detecting the exposure effect. MN harbouring chromosomes can be distinguished from those harbouring acentric fragments by the presence of a centromere. The proportion of centromere-positive MN in human lymphocytes increases with age, which primarily reflects an age-dependent micronucleation of the X and Y chromosomes. The X chromosome especially tends to lag behind in female lymphocyte anaphase, being micronucleated more efficiently than autosomes. There is some evidence for an enhanced prevalence of fragments from chromosome 9 in spontaneous human lymphocyte MN and from chromosomes 1, 9 or 16 in MN induced in vitro by some clastogens; the breakage appears to occur in the heterochromatic block of these chromosomes. Although there are indications that centromere identification can improve the detection of clastogenic effects in humans in vivo, smokers have not shown an increase in centromere-negative MN in their cultured lymphocytes, although smoking is known to produce chromosomal aberrations. This may suggest that fragment-containing MN and chromosomal aberrations cover partly different phenomena. Understanding the mechanistic origin and contents of MN is essential for the proper use of this cytogenetic end-point in biomarker studies, genotoxicity testing and risk assessment.
This article was published in Mutagenesis and referenced in Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords