alexa What is the role of apelin regarding cardiovascular risk and progression of renal disease in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy?
Diabetes & Endocrinology

Diabetes & Endocrinology

Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

Author(s): Silva AP, Fragoso A, Silva C, Viegas C, Tavares N

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To evaluate the association of different apelin levels with cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization, renal function, and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients with mild to moderate CKD.


An observational, prospective study involving 150 patients divided into groups according to baseline apelin levels: 1 ≤ 98 pg/mL, 2 = 98-328 pg/mL, and 3 ≥ 329 pg/mL. Baseline characteristics were analyzed and compared. Multivariate Cox regression was used to find out predictors of cardiovascular mortality, and multivariate logistic regression was used to find out predictors of hospitalization and disease progression. Simple linear regressions and Pearson correlations were used to investigate correlations between apelin and renal disease and cardiovascular risk factors.


Patients' survival at 83 months in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 39%, 40%, and 71.2%, respectively (P = 0.046). Apelin, age, and eGFR were independent predictors of mortality, and apelin, creatinine, eGFR, resistin, and visfatin were independent predictors of hospitalization. Apelin levels were negatively correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and positively correlated with eGFR. Patients with lower apelin levels were more likely to start a depurative technique.


Apelin levels might have a significant clinical use as a marker/predictor of cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization or even as a therapeutic agent for CKD patients with cardiovascular disease.

This article was published in Biomed Res Int. and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

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