Author(s): Tuakuila J, Lison D, Lantin AC, Mbuyi F, Deumer G, , Tuakuila J, Lison D, Lantin AC, Mbuyi F, Deumer G,
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Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The particularly high rate of urbanization in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) is associated with environmental degradation. Outdoor and indoor air pollution, as well as water pollution and waste accumulation, are issues of major concern. However, little documented information exists on the nature and extent of this pollution. A biomonitoring study was conducted to document exposure to trace elements in a representative sample of the population in Kinshasa. METHODS: Fifteen trace elements were measured by ICP-MS, CV-AAS, or HG-AFS in spot urine samples from 220 individuals (50.5\% women) aged 6-70 years living in the urban area and from 50 additional subjects from the rural area of Kinshasa. Data were compiled as geometric means and selected percentiles, expressed without (μg/L) or with creatinine adjustment (μg/g cr). RESULTS: Overall, living in urban Kinshasa was associated with elevated levels of several parameters in urine as compared to the population living in the rural area (Asi, Ba, Cd, Cr, and V) as well as compared to an urban population of the southeast of Congo (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se, V, and Zn). Elevated levels were also found by comparison with the reference values in databases involving American, Canadian, French, or German populations. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first biomonitoring database in the population of Kinshasa, revealing elevated levels for most urinary TE as compared to other databases. Toxicologically relevant elements such as Al, As, Cd, Pb, and Hg reach levels of public health concern.
This article was published in Int Arch Occup Environ Health
and referenced in Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry