alexa WRC-213, an l-methionine-conjugated mitoxantrone derivative, displays anticancer activity with reduced cardiotoxicity and drug resistance: identification of topoisomerase II inhibition and apoptotic machinery in prostate cancers.


Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research

Author(s): Hsiao CJ, Li TK, Chan YL, Hsin LW, Liao CH,

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Abstract Anthracyclines and anthracenediones are well-known cancer chemotherapeutic agents but their uses are limited with cardiotoxicity and drug resistance. Several l- and d-form amino acids were introduced into the anthraquinone skeleton and numerous derivatives were synthesized for the evaluation of anticancer activity. The screening tests showed that WRC-213, an l-methionine conjugation, was the most effective derivative to inhibit proliferative effect of human androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells (IC50=50 nM). In an extension evaluation, WRC-213 displayed a potent anti-proliferative activity in various cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer A549, androgen-independent prostate cancer DU145, colorectal cancer HT-29, breast cancer MCF-7 and hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2. It induced cell-cycle arrest at S and G2, but not mitotic phase, in PC-3 cells. The comet assay revealed that induction of DNA damage and inhibition of topoisomerase II were the primary insults. After the checkpoint arrest of the cell-cycle, WRC-213 induced the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway, including Mcl-1 cleavage, Bcl-2 down-regulation and activation of caspase-9/caspase-3 cascades. Survivin degradation and caspase-2 activation also contributed to WRC-213-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the assessment of cytotoxicity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and drug resistance in NCI/ADR-RES cells demonstrated that WRC-213 showed much lower cardiotoxicity and P-glycoprotein-related resistance than those of mitoxantrone, etoposide and doxorubicin. In conclusion, it is suggested that WRC-213 is a potential topoisomerase II inhibitor with reduced cardiotoxicity and drug resistance. It inhibits topoisomerase II activity and induces chromosomal DNA strand breaks, leading to S and G2 arrest of the cell-cycle and activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways. This article was published in Biochem Pharmacol and referenced in Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research

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