Author(s): Jetley S, Rana S, Khan RN, Jairajpuri ZS
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Abstract Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is a benign, uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterised by focal or diffuse destructive inflammation of the gall bladder. The present study was undertaken to analyse the clinical presentation, pre-operative imaging, intra-operative findings and histological features of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis and the results compared with those in the literature. Thirteen histologically confirmed cases of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis were identified from the retrospective analysis of the patient records of 217 cholecystectomies performed during the period January 2011 to March 2012 at the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi. The clinical, radiological and operative details of these patients have been analysed. The incidence of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis was 6\% and age range was between 25 and 62 years with a mean age of 40.3 years. A female: male ratio was 1.6:1. Chronic right upper quadrant pain was the most common clinical presentation. In 2 patients, a gall bladder carcinoma was suspected radiologically as well as clinically, but was later disproved on histology. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed marked thickening of the gall bladder wall in 11 cases (84.6\%). Laproscopic procedure required conversion to an open procedure in 8 patients (61.5\% conversion rate). Histologically focal or diffuse inflammation with foamy histiocytes, inflammatory cells, giant cells and fibroblasts in varying proportion were seen. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is an unusual destructive inflammatory process, characterised by severe fibrosis and gall bladder wall thickening presenting as a gall bladder mass that mimics gall bladder carcinoma. The pre- and intra-operative differential diagnosis of the disease still remains a challenge to the practising surgeon and histological assessment of all gall bladders excised for xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is critical, considering the occasional coexistence with gall bladder carcinoma.
This article was published in J Indian Med Assoc
and referenced in Journal of Clinical Case Reports