alexa YKL-40 protein expression in the early developing human musculoskeletal system.
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Author(s): Johansen JS, Hyer PE, Larsen LA, Price PA, Mllgrd K

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Abstract YKL-40 is a growth factor for chondrocytes and fibroblasts. The aim was to evaluate YKL-40 expression in the musculoskeletal system during early human development. We studied sections from 15 human embryos [weeks 5.5-8; 7- to 31-mm crown-rump length (CRL)] and 68 fetuses (weeks 9-14; 33- to 105-mm CRL) for YKL-40 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. YKL-40 mRNA expression was evaluated in two human embryos (days 41 and 51). Initially YKL-40 is expressed in all germ layers: ecto-, meso-, and endoderm. YKL-40 mRNA and protein expression are found in tissues of the ecto-, meso-, and endoderm, and YKL-40 protein expression is present during development of cartilage, bone, joints, and muscles. At the cellular level, YKL-40 protein expression is high in tissues characterized by rapid proliferation, marked differentiation, and undergoing morphogenetic changes. Examples of rapid cell proliferation include the chondrogenic inner layer of perichondrium and the osteogenic inner layer of periosteum. Differences in YKL-40 expression during differentiation are found in the chondrogenic and osteogenic cell lineages. The initial shaping of cartilage and bone models and joints is concomitant with a strong outline of YKL-40-positive cells. This indicates that YKL-40 is associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue morphogenesis during development of the human musculoskeletal system. This article was published in J Histochem Cytochem and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy

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