Author(s): Analie LourensHattingh, Bennie C Viljoen
This paper reviews the history of the development of probiotics and the effect on the human gastrointestinal microecology. Furthermore, the application of probiotics to yogurt, commonly referred to as bio-yogurt and the effectiveness of yogurt as probiotic carrier food are also discussed. The paper also reviews the literature explaining, in essence, the concept of ‘therapeutic minimum’ levels and the importance of the survival of probiotic microorganisms in food products. The production of bio-yogurt, survival of probiotic species in yogurt during retail storage, technical considerations for incorporating probiotic microorganisms into yogurt, starter culture technology and enumeration of the probiotic organisms are also reviewed.