Author(s): Rodney W Caldwell, John Tuite, Martin Stob, Robert Baldwin
One-hundred-and-thirteen isolates of Fusarium were tested for their ability to produce zearalenone on autoclaved corn. They belonged to the following species (number of producers per number tested): F. epispheria, (0/1); F. moniliforme, (0/8); Gibberella fujikuroi, (0/3); F. nivale, (0/7); F. oxysporum, (0/15); F. roseum, (31/51); F. solani, (0/9); F. tricinctum (3/19). The isolates of individual species produced the following amounts of zearalenone per gram of corn: 3 isolates of F. roseum (0.6 to 119 μg), 3 of F. roseum “Culmorum” (1 to 210 μg), 3 of F. roseum “Equiseti” (0.6 to 2.0 μg), F. roseum “Gibbosum” (115 to 175 μg), 21 of F. roseum “Graminearum” (0.2 to 230 μg), and 3 of F. tricinctum (0.2 to 6.0 μg). All isolates of F. roseum “Graminearum” which formed the perithecial stage of G. zeae (G. roseum) produced zearalenone. Production occurred by the wild but not the appressed cultural type. Zearalenone production by F. tricinctum was confirmed by a mouse bioassay.