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Arenavirus Infection

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  • Arenavirus infection

    Arenaviruses

    Arenaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause chronic infections in rodents and zoonotically acquired disease in humans through rodent excreta, especially urine. The genus Arenavirus includes 22 viral species and 9 additional arenaviruses that have been recently discovered, for which taxonomic status remains pending. In 1934, the prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus, was first isolated during serial monkey passage of human material that was obtained from a fatal infection in the first documented epidemic of St. Louis encephalitis, a totally unrelated virus. LCM virus was the first recognized cause of aseptic meningitis in humans.

  • Arenavirus infection

     Treatments: This virus can be very devastating yet there are very few treatment methods available. The current lack of a licensed vaccine and limited therapeutic options for the Arenavirus make it arguably among the most neglected virus to be dealt with. The only licensed drug for the treatment of human Arenavirus infection is the nucleoside analogue ribavirin. Ribavirin reduces morbidity and mortality in humans who have certain Arenaviruses, such as LASV and JUNV infections, if it is taken in the early stages of the disease. 

  • Arenavirus infection

     Diseases: • LCM viruses cause influenza -like febrile illness,but occasionally they may cause meningitis,characteristically accompanied by large numbers of lymphocytes in the CSF (as the name LCM suggests). • Lassa fever virus causes Lassa fever. Lassa fever is endemic in west Africa.The virus was first isolated from Americans stationed in the village of Lassa, Nigeria.The virus can be transmitted person-to -person. • other Arenaviruses like Junin virus, Machupo virus cause haemorrhagic fevers.

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