Bladder stones are hard masses of minerals in the urinary bladder. In most cases bladder stones develop when the urine becomes very concentrated or when one is dehydrated. Minerals such as calcium and magnesium crystallize into the stones, which then can cause such symptoms as lower back or abdominal pain or difficulty with urination. The use of urinary catheters may cause a bladder stone. Lower abdominal pain, painful urination, frequent urination, blood in urine etc. are the symptoms. The diagnosis of bladder stone includes urinalysis, ultrasonography, x rays or cystoscopy. Surgery is usually needed to remove the stones from the bladder. The most common procedure is a cystolitholapaxy. Where possible, it's important to treat the underlying causes of bladder stones to prevent new stones developing in the future.
Treatment: Bladder stones are often removed during a procedure called a cystolitholapaxy (sis-toe-lih-THOL-uh-pak-see). A small tube with a camera at the end (cystoscope) is inserted through your urethra and into your bladder to view the stone. Your doctor then uses a laser, ultrasound or mechanical device to break the stone into small pieces and flushes the pieces from your bladder.
Symptoms Some people with bladder stones have no problems — even when their stones are large. But if a stone irritates the bladder wall or blocks the flow of urine, signs and symptoms can develop. These include: Lower abdominal pain In men, pain or discomfort in the penis Painful urination Frequent urination Difficulty urinating or interruption of urine flow Blood in your urine Cloudy or abnormally dark-colored urine.
statistics:These modifications predisposed to calcium oxalate crystal formation. However in 2004, struvite stones once again surpassed calcium oxalate stones 44.9 percent to 44.3 percent, and in 2006, 50 percent of stones were struvite and 39 percent were calcium oxalate. This may have been due to the increased use of diets designed to prevent calcium oxalate crystal formation, which because of increased magnesium in the diet and decreased acidity of the urine help promote struvite crystal formation.