The term heart disease is often interchanged with the term cardiovascular disease. It generally refers to the conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. By controlling high blood pressure, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy diet and by maintaining low cholesterol levels heart diseases can be prevented.
Diagnosis and symptoms include cardiac catherization, cardiac MRI, picturing the heart, a CT scan, a coronary angiography, stress testing, echocardiography, nuclear heart scan, etc. Treatment for heart valve problems include medications, heart valve surgery and for heart attack medications like clot busters should be administered as soon as possible, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Monitoring of arterial hypertension on representative samples has shown that overall prevelance of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Russia is 13.5 +/- 0.1%, in men--14.3 +/- 0.3%, in women--13.0 +/- 0.2%. This is three times higher than in the United States where this figure in 2004 was 4.9%. CHD morbidity raises with age and in population over 70 years of age reaches in Russia 50%.