In CD, inflammation is characterized as transmural and can affect any portion of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the perianal area, which leads to a spectrum of clinical manifestations more variable than that of UC. Although anatomical distribution is fairly stable over time, the behavior of the disease may vary significantly with passing time. For example, a French study17 looking at various CD phenotypes found nonstricturing or nonpenetrating types in 70% of patients, stricturing in 17%, and penetrating in 13%. At 10 year follow-up, 27% and 30% of nonstricturing types had transformed to stricturing and penetrating disease, respectively. Approximately 10-30% of CD patients experience relapse or disease exacerbation after the first year of diagnosis. At 10-15 years following, 13% will have a relapse free course, 20% will have annual relapses, and 67% will have a chronic intermittent course18. Most patients with CD ultimately require surgery, with risk for hemicolectomy at approximately 35% after 10 years from diagnosis19. Recurrence of perianal fistulas after medical or surgical therapy is common. Given disease heterogeneity, overall life expectancy in patients with CD is not well established.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves chronic inflammation of all or part of your digestive tract. IBD primarily includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.Doctors use one of two approaches to treatment: "step-up," which starts with milder drugs first, versus "top-down," which gives people stronger drugs earlier in the treatment process.Severe diarrhea, pain, fatigue and weight loss. IBD can be debilitating and sometimes leads to life-threatening complications.
The intestinal complications of IBD are caused by intestinal inflammation that is severe, widespread, chronic, and/or extends beyond the inner lining (mucosa) of the intestines.n Crohn's disease, inflammation often spreads deep into affected tissues. The inflammation can involve different areas of the digestive tract the large intestine, small intestine or both.