Pathophysiology:The Leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoan parasites from more than 20 Leishmania species that are transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis The cutaneous form presents with skin ulcers, while the mucocutaneous form presents with ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose, and the visceral form starts with skin ulcers and then later presents with fever, low red blood cells, and enlarged spleen and liver.
Treatment:The treatment is determined by where the disease is acquired, the species of Leishmania, and the type of infection. For visceral leishmaniasis in India, South America, and the Mediterranean, liposomal amphotericin B is the recommended treatment and is often used as a single dose A number of topical treatments may be used for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Which treatments are effective depends on the strain, with topical paromomycin effective for L. major, L. tropica, L. mexicana, L. panamensis, and L. braziliensis.
Statistics: VL was firstly reported in 1913. Between 1935 and 1969, 821 cases of VL were recorded from 62 villages in 16 regions of the Republic . The city of Erevan was considered to be the most active focus of VL. A control programme against diseased dogs and sand fly vectors carried out in 1954 and 1955 reduced the morbidity of VL significantly . In 1999, after a long break, a case of VL was diagnosed in a four-year-old child. The number of cases has increased since then with up to 13 cases in 2008 and 10 between January and November in 2009 . In total, 50 cases of VL were registered between 1999 and 2008.