Pathophysiology: Anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is a major public health problem that threatens progress made in TB care and control worldwide. Drug resistance arises due to improper use of antibiotics in chemotherapy of drug-susceptible TB patients. This improper use is a result of a number of actions including, administration of improper treatment regimens and failure to ensure that patients complete the whole course of treatment.
Statistics: Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new and relapse tuberculosis cases arising in a given year, expressed as the rate per 100,000 population. All forms of TB are included, including cases in people living with HIV. In Russia the incidence of Tuberculosis reported from 2001-2005 is 99 cases, and from 2006-2011 is also reported as 93 cases and in 2015 the cases wetre reported as 89 cases.
Treatment: Community-based treatment programs such as DOTS-Plus, a MDR-TB-specialized treatment using the popular Directly Observed Therapy – Short Course (DOTS) initiative, have shown considerable success in the treatment of MDR-TB in some parts of the world. In these locales, these programs have proven to be a good option for proper treatment of MDR-TB in poor, rural areas. A successful example has been in Lima, Peru, where the program has seen cure rates of over 80%.
Major Research: The characteristics of M. tuberculosis strains analysed showed that MDR strains accumulate additional antibiotic resistances with about 50% of them carrying pyrazinamide resistances. New drugs are under identification using phenotypic screening of chemical libraries and genomic approaches. Drugs used in clinic and new leads provided by partners of the EC NAREB project will be associated to nanocarriers with the aim to increase efficacy and lower side effects.