Disease pathophysiology: Syphilis is a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis. Other human diseases caused by related Treponema pallidum include yaws (subspecies pertenue), pinta (subspecies carateum) and bejel (subspecies endemicum).
Disease Statistics: Between 1999 and 2008, reported rates of infectious syphilis increased in both sexes, but primarily in males. During this period, the rate in men increased by 870.7% (from 0.7 to 7.3 per 100,000) and in women increased by 123.4% (from 0.5 to 1.1 per 100,000). 2008, people aged 30 and older accounted for 73.6% of reported cases. In men, the highest reported rate of infectious syphilis was shared between 25 to 29 year olds and 30 to 39 year olds (13.3 per 100,000). Together, these age groups accounted for almost 40% of reported cases in men in 2008. Between 1999 and 2008, the largest increase in reported rates of infectious syphilis was in Alberta, with an increase of 6700%.
Treatment: The first choice for the treatment for syphilis is intramuscular benzathine penicillin G Doxycycline and tetracycline in alternative choice to those who are allergic to pencillins Resistance to macrolides, rifampin, and clindamycin is often present. Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, may be as effective as penicillin-based treatment. It is recommended that a treated person avoid sex until the sores are healed. Major Research: major research on syphilis in Russia in carried out by CAETE(Canada Source of HIV and Hepatitis).