Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The causes of type 2 diabetes are multi-factorial and include both genetic and environmental elements that affect beta-cell function and tissue (muscle, liver, adipose tissue, pancreas) insulin sensitivity. Although there is considerable debate as to the relative contributions ofbeta-cell dysfunction and reduced insulin sensitivity to the pathogenesis of diabetes, it is generally agreed that both these factors play important roles.
Treatments for type 2 diabetes focus on: controlling blood sugar, achieving a healthy weight, improving activity levels. Both lifestyle changes and medical treatments can help to control the disease. Monitoring blood sugar is an essential part of diabetes treatment. People with diabetes need to monitor and record their blood sugar on a regular basis. Monitoring frequency varies.Type 2 Diabetes afflicts close to 250 million people in world today, 27 million in the United States alone.
The prevalence of diabetes among Russian-speaking immigrants aged 40 years and older (N=1,008) was 16.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.6, 19.3). Russian-speaking immigrants also exhibited a high prevalence of obesity, defined by BMI > or = 30 (33.2%, 95% CI: 30.4, 36.2), high blood pressure (53.8%, 95% CI: 50.7, 56.8), and sedentary lifestyle (69.8%, 95% CI: 67.0, 72.6). After adjusting for age, these rates were significantly higher (P<.01) than the rates for non-Hispanic Whites in the state.