Pathophysiology: Viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection where inflammation of the stomach and intestines occur from a virus. It is also known as “stomach flu”. This infection may lead to watery diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, nausea or vomiting, and fever. It occurs by contact with a diseased person or by intake of contaminated food or water.Clinicians have categorized it into: Sporadic gastroenteritis, Epidemic gastroenteritis (food-borne or water-borne pathogens), and Acute gastroenteritis.
Disease statistics: According to an epidemiological study published in 2009 in Russia, there was high number of rotavirus gastroenteritis infections. The highest incidence rate in children under 14 years was noted in 2005 (320.5 per 100,000 children). During 1994-2007 the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children was higher in Arkhangelsk than in the Russian Federation. Rotavirus was the causative agent in 73.5% of diarrhoea cases and norovirus to be the cause of 26.5% of the gastroenteritis cases.
Treatment: Viral gastroenteritis is diagnosed by physical exam such as stool sample to test for virus. There are no specific medical treatments and initially it involves lot of self-care measures. Antibiotics aren’t effective against viruses. The illness may be due to parasitic or bacterial infection. Primary goal is to prevent dehydration by providing enough water and fluids to the diseased body. Food is offered in small amounts. In case of small children, food is supplied intravenously.
Research: Research study was majorly done by Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia and Moscow Vladimirsky Regional Scientific Clinical Institute, Moscow, Russia.