alexa Satellite Cells and the Universe of Adult Muscle Stem Cells | OMICS International
ISSN: 2157-7633
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Like us on:

Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Satellite Cells and the Universe of Adult Muscle Stem Cells

Stefano Biressi1* and Atsushi Asakura2*

1Paul F. Glenn Laboratories for the Biology of Aging and Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford,
California 94305, USA

2Stem Cell Institute, Paul and Sheila Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA

*Corresponding Authors:
Stefano Biressi, Ph D
Paul F. Glenn Laboratories for the Biology of Aging and Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences
Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford
California 94305, USA
Tel: (+1)650-493-5000-1-62073
Fax: (+1)650-849-0436
E-mail: [email protected]
 
Atsushi Asakura
Ph D, Stem Cell Institute
Paul and Sheila Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Center
Department of Neurology
University of Minnesota Medical School
Minneapolis, MN, USA
Tel: (+1)612-624-7108
Fax: (+1)612-624-2436
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: November 18, 2012; Accepted date: November 19, 2012; Published date: November 22, 2012

Citation: Biressi S, Asakura A (2012) Satellite Cells and the Universe of Adult Muscle Stem Cells. J Stem Cell Res Ther S11:e001. doi:10.4172/2157-7633.S11-e001

Copyright: © 2012 Biressi S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Skeletal muscle is, in terms of volume, the most abundant tissue in the vertebrate body. It exerts a key role in controlling several physiological functions such as driving locomotion, maintaining body temperature, and hosting a significant portion metabolic activity. Myofibers are the primary unit of all skeletal muscles, and they are composed of specialized multinucleated syncytial structures that express a specific array of proteins necessary for muscle contraction.

Myofibers are formed during development as consequence of the proliferative growth and fusion of myogenic progenitors, or myoblasts. Similarly to the hematopoietic system, skeletal muscle is formed in subsequent phases of myogenesis involving different stages of myogenic progenitors [1]. Nevertheless, not all myogenic progenitors terminally differentiate during development; a fraction of cells with myogenic potential is maintained in a primitive state in the adult organism to serve as muscle stem cells [2]. These cells can be activated in response to tissue damage or further growth demands to execute the myogenic program and contribute to muscle growth and regeneration. Assembled in this special issue on “Muscle Stem Cells” in the Journal of Stem Cell Research and Therapy you will find reviews that discuss different aspects of adult muscle stem cell biology.

Work over the last 50 years attributed to satellite cells, which are muscle stem cells closely associated with the myofibers, a central role in mediating the regenerative response in skeletal muscle [3]. Even though their presence is necessary for a productive regenerative response, other cell types have also been shown to have myogenic potential [4]. Although, in most cases the physiological relevance of these other cells remains unclear, an increasing amount of observations suggests that they could be applied in regenerative medicine [5]. Repair or replacement of tissues and organs lost due to age, damage or disease are challenges that medical research currently faces. In particular, stem cell based therapy could be a powerful approach for the treatment of rare diseases for which specific treatments are poorly investigated, and for the treatment of disorders that so far have eluded therapy, such as muscular dystrophies.

In this special issue, Maurilio Sampaolesi et al. give a comprehensive overview of the stem cells with myogenic characteristics and discuss their use in preclinical and clinical studies. These cell types include bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), circulating AC133+ stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), amnion fluid stem cells (AFSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs), side population (SP) cells and mesoangioblasts (MABs) (Figure 1). The authors also consider the potential application of embryonic (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for the treatment of different types of muscular dystrophies. The review contributed by Atsushi Asakura instead focuses on the most recent findings regarding the hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors residing in the adult muscle as well as bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. Their myogenic potential and their possible application for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common form of muscular dystrophy are discussed as well.

One of the major obstacles for the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine is the loss of regenerative and self-renewing potential occurring during ex vivo expansion. Current applied stem cell therapies generally require many rounds of proliferation prior to use to obtain an adequate number of cells for transplantation purposes. In this issue, Gerben Schaaf et al. give a detailed description of the approaches used to culture different types of stem cells, in a way that preserves their regenerative potential. Particular attention is given to the parameters influencing the myogenic properties of satellite cells and of mesoangioblasts/pericytes, which are currently under evaluation in a clinical trial for the treatment of DMD.

Skeletal muscle is not only altered in muscular dystrophies, but is primarily or secondarily affected in various diseases, such as diabetes, AIDS, cancer, and aging. These pathological conditions not only affect muscle fibers, but also alter the properties of the stem cells resident in the muscles [6]. Andrew Brack and Joe Chakkalakal discuss how Wnt, Notch, TGF-β, and FGF cross-talk and signaling pathways are deregulated with aging and how this deregulation contributes to satellite cells dysfunction and depletion.

Muscles are not only formed by bundles of multinucleated contracting fibers and by the stem cells responsible for their repair. They contain a rich variety of other cell types. Nerves and vessels penetrate into the muscles and show a strong influence on the muscle regenerative response. Various cell types recruited from the blood and cells resident in the interstitium between the fibers also play key roles during muscle regeneration. Lorenzo Puri and Barbora Malacova review the most recent studies investigating the functional relationship between muscle interstitial cells (MICs)/fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs)/Pw1+ interstitial cells (PICs) and satellite cells (Figure 1). They discuss how an increasing body of evidence indicates that MICs/FAPs/PICs represent a heterogeneous population of cells that exert a strong influence on the regenerative ability of skeletal muscle.

stem-cell-research-therapy-myogenic-potential-cells

Figure 1: Skeletal muscle contains several different types of myogenic potential cells, including satellite cell, myogenic precursor cell, pericyte, mesoangioblast (MAB), muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC), side population (SP) cell, muscle interstitial cell (MIC), fibro-adipogenic progenitor (FAP), Pw1+ interstitial cell (PIC) and hematopoietic cells. In addition, other non-muscle tissue-derived stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), hematopoietic stem cell/hematopoietic progenitor cell (HSC/ HPC), embryonic stem cell/induced pluripotent stem cell (ESC/iPSC), AC133+, adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) and amnion fluid stem cell (AFSC), have been shown to have an ability to differentiate into myogenic cells, and thus these cells may be utilized for therapeutic stem cell transplantation.

The increasing interest in the application of muscle stem cells in regenerative medicine provides a strong stimulus to understand how the complicated process of muscle regeneration is orchestrated, which cells niches and signals are governing the fate of stem cells, and how the fine equilibrium between the different components of the muscle is affected in pathological conditions. A better comprehension of these events will be crucial in order to develop successful stem cell-therapy approaches for the treatment of muscle diseases.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

  • 10th Annual Conference on Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine August 13-14, 2018 London, UK
    August 13-14, 2018 London, UK
  • World Congress on Stem Cell Biology and Biobanking September 3-4, 2018 Tokyo, Japan
    September 3-4, 2018 Tokyo, Japan
  • 2nd Annual summit on Cell Metabolism and Cytopathology September 19 - 20, 2018 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    September 19 - 20, 2018 Philadelphia, USA
  • 2nd Annual summit on Cell Signaling and Cancer Therapy September 19 - 20, 2018 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    September 19 - 20, 2018 Philadelphia, USA
  • 6th Annual Congress on Biology and Medicine of Molecules September 20-21,2018 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    September 20-21,2018 Kualalumpur, Malaysia
  • 5th International Conference on Human Genetics and Genetic Disorders September 21-22,2018 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    September 21-22,2018 Philadelphia, USA
  • 11th International Conference on Genomics and Pharmacogenomics September 21-22, 2018 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    September 21-22, 2018 Philadelphia, USA
  • 5th World Congress on HUMAN GENETICS SEPTEMBER 24-25, 2018 BERLIN, GERMANY
    SEPTEMBER 24-25, 2018 Berlin, Germany
  • 21st Euro Biotechnology Congress October 11-12, 2018 Moscow, Russia
    October 11-12, 2018 Moscow, Russia
  • 11th International Conference on Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine October 18-20, 2018 Rome, Italy
    October 18-20, 2018 Rome, Italy
  • 24th Biotechnology Congress: Research & Innovations October 24-25, 2018 Boston, USA
    October 24-25, 2018 Boston, USA
  • International Conference on Human Genome Meeting October 25-26, 2018 Istanbul, Turkey
    October 25-26, 2018 Istanbul, Turkey
  • International Congress & Expo on Genomics and Bioinformatics November 2-3, 2018 Columbus, Ohio, USA
    November 2-3, 2018 Columbus, USA
  • 12th International Conference & Exhibition on Tissue Preservation and Biobanking November 9-10, 2018 Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    November 9-10, 2018 Atlanta, USA
  • 2nd Annual Summit on Cell Therapy and Stem Cell Research November 9-10, 2018 Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    November 9-10, 2018 Atlanta, USA

Article Usage

  • Total views: 12100
  • [From(publication date):
    specialissue-2012 - Jul 18, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8306
  • PDF downloads : 3794
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7