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In current situation where dramatic changes in the environmental conditions are very common finding th e alternate options in increasing crop productivity is main are a that needs to be emphasized to feed the overwhelm ing populations and ensure their food security. Among e nvironmental conditions like various biotic and abi otic stresses are playing major role in decreasing crop productiv ity. Abiotic stress includes high and low temperatu re, salinity, drought, flooding and heavy metals. These stresses reduced the yield of crops, depending on the type o f crop and stress period. In many semi-arid and arid regions o f the world, crop yield islimited due to increased rate of soil salinity. Salinity and drought are the two most com plex stress tolerances to breed for as the type (co mbinations of drought and salinity), timing in relation to plant growth stage and intensity of stress can all vary c onsiderably, which have severely affected plant growth and bioma ss production since long. Biotic stresses, mainly r epresented by pests and diseases, constitute the single greatest threat to crop production. These include many thous ands of species and types of fungi, insects, bacteria, viruses, nem atodes and other organisms. Modern farming practice s, with their reliance on agrochemical pest and disease control, are responsible for considerable pollution and can have harmful effects on human health. Pests control strategies i n crops included the fungicides and other cultural control measures, particularly against airborne fungi patho gens, are continually eroded in their effectiveness by adaptations in the pathogen. Resistance against pes ts and stress is one of the key factors for plant v arieties used in production systems. The most prevalent tools to con trol plant, pests and enhance soil fertilely are th e use of intensive agrochemicals irrespective of their high cost and deleterious impacts on health and environm ents. Variety selection and the use of fungicides are two managem ent strategies that producers should consider to im prove economic return. Multiple biotic and abiotic enviro nmental stress factors affect negatively various as pects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Plants and animals share some response mechanisms to unfav orable environmental conditions; however, plants, being se ssile organisms, have developed, in the course of t heir evolution, highly sophisticated and efficient strat egies of response to cope with and adapt to differe nt types of abiotic and biotic stress imposed by the frequently adverse environment.
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Author(s): Wafaa M Haggag Abouziena H F AbdElKreem F and El Habbasha S
biotechnology, biotic, abiotic