International Journal of Drug Development and Research
Open Access

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)


Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale (Parmeliaceae) is a foliose lichen that grows luxuriantly in tropical Himalayas, central India and higher altitudes of southern India. In the present study, we investigated antimicrobial, anthelmintic and insecticidal activity of a foliose macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale (Parmeliaceae). Powdered lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. The extract was tested for secondary metabolites by standard phytochemical tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria was screened by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by micro-dilution method. Antifungal activity was tested against Aspergillus niger and A. fumigatus by Agar well diffusion method. Anthelmintic activity, in terms of paralysis and death of worms, was determined using adult Indian earthworm model. Insecticidal activity was assessed in terms of larval mortality against 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Methanol extract of E. cirrhatum caused more inhibition of Streptococcus epidermidis than other bacteria whereas P. aeruginosa was least inhibited. The MIC was found to be least for S. epidermidis. The extract has shown more inhibition of Aspergillus niger than A. fumigatus. At concentration 5mg/ml and higher, the extract produced marked anthelmintic effect than the reference drug. The extract exhibited potent larvicidal effect. Among larvae, 2nd instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible than 3rd instar larvae. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed Atranorin, Salazinic acid and Protolichesterinic acid. The results of bioactivities of E. cirrhatum are promising. The activities of the extract may be attributed to the presence of various secondary metabolites. The lichen thus forms a potential candidate for drug discovery and development. Further studies on isolation of active principles from the extract and their bioactivities are under investigation.

To read the full article Peer-reviewed Article PDF image | Peer-reviewed Full Article image

Author(s): Swathi D Suchitha Y Prashith Kekuda TR Venugopal TM Vinayaka KS Mallikarjun N Raghavendra HL


Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale, TLC, Agar well diffusion, MIC, Pheretima pasthuma, Larval mortality

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version