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Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale (Parmeliaceae) is a foliose lichen that grows luxuriantly in tropical Himalayas, central India and higher altitudes of southern India. In the present study, we investigated antimicrobial, anthelmintic and insecticidal activity of a foliose macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale (Parmeliaceae). Powdered lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. The extract was tested for secondary metabolites by standard phytochemical tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria was screened by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by micro-dilution method. Antifungal activity was tested against Aspergillus niger and A. fumigatus by Agar well diffusion method. Anthelmintic activity, in terms of paralysis and death of worms, was determined using adult Indian earthworm model. Insecticidal activity was assessed in terms of larval mortality against 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Methanol extract of E. cirrhatum caused more inhibition of Streptococcus epidermidis than other bacteria whereas P. aeruginosa was least inhibited. The MIC was found to be least for S. epidermidis. The extract has shown more inhibition of Aspergillus niger than A. fumigatus. At concentration 5mg/ml and higher, the extract produced marked anthelmintic effect than the reference drug. The extract exhibited potent larvicidal effect. Among larvae, 2nd instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible than 3rd instar larvae. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed Atranorin, Salazinic acid and Protolichesterinic acid. The results of bioactivities of E. cirrhatum are promising. The activities of the extract may be attributed to the presence of various secondary metabolites. The lichen thus forms a potential candidate for drug discovery and development. Further studies on isolation of active principles from the extract and their bioactivities are under investigation.
Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale, TLC, Agar well diffusion, MIC, Pheretima pasthuma, Larval mortality