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Research Article Open Access
Ethanol leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia was investigated for its anti-typhoid and hepato-curative activity in Salmonella typhi infected rats. The phytochemical composition and acute toxicity dose (LD50) of the plant extract were also evaluated. Total number of twenty-four wistar rats without sex discxrimination, distributed into six groups (n = 4) were used for this study. Group II-VI animals were infected with pure isolate of Salmonella typhi and administered 0.2 ml of distilled water, 0.5 mg/kg body weight of Amoxil, 0.5 mg/kg b.w of chloramphenicol, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract respectively, Group I animals serve as normal control. The result of the quantitative phytochemical screening reveals high concentration of terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and tannins. The acute toxicity study reveal the lethal dose (LD50) of the extract to be equal to or greated than 5000 mg/kg body weight. The plant extract was effective against Salmonella typhi on rats infected with the bacteria as shown by the widal test. The result of the biochemical studies showed significant (p<0.05) increase in plasma AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin level of the animals infected with Salmonella typhi and treated with 0.5 mg/kg b. w of Amoxil and Chloramphenicol, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the leaf extract compared with the infected rats administered 0.2 ml of distilled water. The histological study revealed changes in the hepatic histo-architecture consistent with inflammatory changes varied in severity ranging from mild to moderate and severe with or without hepatocellular coagulative necrosis. The curative property of Tithonia diversifolia extract in Salmonella typhi infected animals suggested that, Tithonia diversifolia could be used in the management of typhoid fever and hepatic damage or injury resulting from typhoid infection. The active compounds in the extract might have antioxidative activity, protecting against oxidative damage.
Anti-typhoid, Phytochemical, LD50, Histological, Salmonella typhi, Plant Biochemistry, Plant Microbiology