alexa Abstract | Comparing the effects of Errorless and Error ful and fixed practices on learning of throwing task

European Journal of Experimental Biology
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Research Article Open Access


This aim of current research is to study the errorless and Error ful learning in throwing task and also comparing them with constant group. 30femalestudents with range age of 22±2 years old voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects similarly and randomly divided into three error ful, errorless and constant groups (10 subjects in each group). Error ful group participants respectively at 2.5, 2.75, 3, 3.25, 3.5 meters, errorless group, respectively at 2.5, 2.75, 3, 3.25 and 3.5 m and constant group only from 3 meter began to practice. At the end of the acquisition, acquisition testing, one Block of 10 trials from a 3 meter distance was taken from all groups. In the test phase, the fourth day, four tests were held each test consisted of one block of 10 trials. Snellen vision accurately measure and vision gauges machine STEREO OPTICAL 5000 (made in America), to ensure the subjects vision healthy. The statistical test results showed that there wasn’t significant differences for throwing skill between experimental groups in acquisition test (P=0.005). Therefore there was significant differences between groups in retention test (P=0.004), secondary transfer test (P=0.001), inside the scope transfer test (P=0.001) and outside the scope test (P=0.002). Based on the study results, concluded that errorless group earned the skills via inactive and Error ful group acted as the explicit learning. Although the constant group was under the secondary cognitive task, acts near the errorless group but, a lot of verbal rules were reported such as the Error ful group.

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Author(s): Behrouz Abdoli Alireza Farsi and Fariba Hasan Barani


implicit learning, explicit learning, errorless learning, Error ful learning, fixed practice, throwing task

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