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Background: Patients' compliance consists a complex and multidimensional health issue, globally. At least three terms are used to describe the behavior of medication- taking. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review a conceptual analysis of patients' compliance to treatment. Method and Material: The methodology included research of studies published in electronic databases such as Pub Med, Medline, WHO, PsychInfo, Cochrane National Council on Patient Information and Education and Dovepress. The search covered the period 1970-2011. Results: Literature includes terminology analysis of terms 'patients' compliance and non-compliance', 'patients' adherence and non-adherence' and 'patients' concordance'. Approximately 115 articles were identified. The present sample comprises 43 articles analyzing the terminology of these terms. 11 of these are mentioned in the attitude of Nursing Science to the controversy about the terms. Conclusions: Compliance can be defined in various ways. The interpretation of the term depends on the philosophical context in which the concept is settled. The patient-centered approach facilitates the creation of an alliance between patient-therapist.