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Background: Anorexia nervosa is probably the most substantial eating disorder, with basically unknown causes, centered on psychological factors and affected by many social, biological and cultural ones. The aim of this study was to emerge the complex issues regarding the treatment, the early intervention and the prevention of the anorexia nervosa. The method οf this study included a search of the literature in several databases (Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL) to identify articles related to anorexia nervosa. Results: Patients with anorexia nervosa develop a refusal in ingestion of food, maintaining a distorted self-perception of their body, considering themselves as overweighed. The diagnosis even though is made according international established criteria, varies among the patients taking into consideration additional factors like family and social environment. As the patients refuse to admit the seriousness of their condition, they seek for medical assistance when disorders appear in vital organs, due to de-nutrition. In most cases hospitalization is necessary and includes a suitable diet program and medication treatment. Conclusions: Psychological therapy is a basic part of the treatment, in long-term basis and is employed by behavior therapy and the patient's support. Advising the public and especially parents with children in adolescence, where usually anorexia nervosa occurs, is necessary as the prevention and the early diagnosis is the best treatment.