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Research Article Open Access
Introduction: Hypertension is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke and renal failure. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of hypertension, its awareness, treatment and blood pressure (BP) control in Singapore.
Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, community-based study in Toa Payoh on a random sample of 409 participants aged 40 years and above. We performed three BP measurements; mean of the last two was considered the BP value and calculated prevalence, odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) where appropriate.
Results: The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 53.8 percent (men: 58.0 percent, women: 50.8 percent). Among hypertensive, 72.7 percent were aware of their disease, 62.3 percent were treated and 27.3 percent were previously undiagnosed. Factors positively associated with undiagnosed hypertension: being unmarried/without spouse (OR [95 percent CI]: 2.29 [1.25-4.21]), current smoking (OR [95 percent CI]: 3.56 [1.66-7.63]), employed full-time (OR [95 percent CI]: 2.72 [1.46-5.06]). Factors negatively associated: presence of diabetes (OR [95%CI]: 0.16 [0.05-0.53]), or coronary artery disease (OR [95 percent CI]: 0.09 [0.01- 0.69]). Among treated hypertensive, 49.6 percent had poor BP control. Factors associated with poor control: primary school education (OR [95 percent CI]: 3.60 [1.71-7.54]), unemployed/homemaker (OR [95 percent CI]: 2.37 [1.01-5.53]), no physical activity (OR [95 percent CI]: 2.12 [1.06-4.23]) and no recent GP visits (OR [95 percent CI]: 2.51 [1.27-5.01]).
Conclusion: Approximately half of adults aged 40 years and above in Toa Payoh have hypertension. More than one-quarter was previously undiagnosed. Among those on treatment, approximately half had BP’s higher than currently recommended levels.
Hypertension, Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, Control, Crosssectional study, Singapore, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Systolic Blood Pressure, Hypertension-Elevated Blood Flow