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Research Article Open Access
Title: Diet quality of Mediterranean adolescents evaluated by Mediterranean adaptation of the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I): socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle and body image determinants.
Background: Epidemiological evidences suggest that dietary patterns in the Mediterranean countries are changing rapidly. Objective: To assess the diet quality of Mediterranean adolescents by means of the Mediterranean adaptation of the DQI-I, and its association with socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle and body image characteristics.
Methods & Findings: Cross-sectional survey (n=1231; 12−17 years old) carried out in the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean region. Diet quality was assessed by means of the DQI-I’s Mediterranean adaptation. Body composition, body image, socioeconomic factors, and physical activity were also assessed. The mean total modified DQI score was around 47.0% (standard deviation: 9.8%) of the possible score (100%). The univariate linear regression analysis showed that age and media screen time were inversely correlated with the DQI score; whereas a direct correlation with parental educational level was found. The DQI score also decreased in physically inactive adolescents and in those adolescents who wish a thicker body shape; whereas increased in those adolescents who wish a thinner body shape. The multivariate linear regression showed that age group, parental educational level, media screen time and body image dissatisfaction were the main associated variables with the DQI score.
Conclusions: The assessed Mediterranean adolescents showed a poor-quality diet. Programs to promote the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern among adolescents and their relatives, combined with active lifestyle, would likely result in a more favorable future health profile.
Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), Mediterranean Diet, Adolescents, Balearic Islands., Diet Therapy, Therapeutic Diet