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Original Articles Open Access
Bioavailability is the rate and extent to which the active ingredient or active moiety is absorbed from a drug product and becomes available at the site of action. Traditionally, nearly 40% of the new chemical entities (NCEs) identified by pharmaceutical industry screening programs have failed to be developed due to of poor water solubility, which makes their formulation difficult or even impossible to come into the regular market. Solubility is one of the important ways to achieve the desired concentration of drug in to the systemic circulation for its pharmacological response and also most of the drugs are weakly acidic and weakly basic with poorly aqueous solubility. The oral route of administration is the most preferred and widely acceptable route of delivery due to ease of ingestion for many drugs, however these drugs with slow dissolution rate and low solubility in aqueous media shows the incomplete absorption leading to low bioavailability when orally administered. Poorly aqueous soluble drugs often require high doses in order to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations of oral concentration because of which increase in the side effects for certain drugs. Pharmaceuticals falling under the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II and IV are the main emphasis of this review as these drugs are of low solubility. Here we discussed about traditional techniques, novel drug delivery technologies, solid dispersion techniques and vascular approaches to enhance the solubility as well as the bioavailability of low soluble drugs.
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Author(s): Manoj Kumar Vadlamudi and Sangeetha Dhanaraj
Bioavailability, New chemical entities, Solubility, Absorption, Biopharmaceutics Classification System, drug delivery technologies, bioavailability